2024 Mexican general election

Source From Wikipedia English.

General elections were held in Mexico on 2 June 2024. Voters elected a new president to serve a six-year term, all 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies, and all 128 members of the Senate of the Republic. These elections took place concurrently with the 2024 state elections.

2024 Mexican general election
2024 Mexican general election - Wikidata
2 June 2024
Presidential election
← 2018
2030 →
Opinion polls
Turnout61.05% (Decrease 2.38pp)
 
Sheinbaum Abril 2024.jpg
Xóchitl Gálvez mayo 2024 (cropped).jpg
Jorge Álvarez Máynez (cropped).jpg
Nominee Claudia Sheinbaum Xóchitl Gálvez Jorge Máynez
Party MORENA PAN MC
Alliance Sigamos Haciendo Historia Fuerza y Corazón por México
Popular vote 35,924,519 16,502,697 6,204,710
Percentage 61.18% 28.11% 10.57%


President before election

Andrés Manuel López Obrador
MORENA

Elected President

Claudia Sheinbaum
MORENA

Senate
← 2018
2030 →

All 128 seats in the Senate of the Republic
65 seats needed for a majority
Party Leader % Seats +/–
Sigamos Haciendo Historia (83 seats)
MORENA Mario Delgado 42.48 60 +5
PVEM Karen Castrejón Trujillo 9.30 14 +8
PT Alberto Anaya 5.58 9 +3
Fuerza y Corazón por México (40 seats)
PAN Marko Cortés Mendoza 17.54 22 −1
PRI Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas 11.33 16 +2
PRD Jesús Zambrano Grijalva 2.36 2 −6
Other (5 seats)
MC Dante Delgado 11.33 5 −2
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
President of the Senate before President of the Senate after
Ana Lilia Rivera
MORENA
TBD
Chamber of Deputies
← 2021
2027 →

All 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
251 seats needed for a majority
Party Leader % Seats +/–
Sigamos Haciendo Historia (373 seats)
MORENA Mario Delgado 42.40 248 +50
PVEM Karen Castrejón Trujillo 8.72 75 +32
PT Alberto Anaya 5.68 50 +13
Fuerza y Corazón por México (102 seats)
PAN Marko Cortés Mendoza 17.55 68 −46
PRI Alejandro Moreno Cárdenas 11.57 33 −37
PRD Jesús Zambrano Grijalva 2.53 1 −14
Other (25 seats)
MC Dante Delgado 11.34 24 +1
Independents 0.13 1 +1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Results by constituency
President of the Chamber of Deputies before President of the Chamber of Deputies after
Marcela Guerra Castillo
PRI
TBD

Claudia Sheinbaum, a member of the left-wing political party National Regeneration Movement (Morena), was widely regarded by her party as the top contender to succeed President Andrés Manuel López Obrador and ultimately secured the nomination of the ruling coalition, Sigamos Haciendo Historia. Xóchitl Gálvez emerged as the frontrunner of Fuerza y Corazón por México following a surge in popularity due to criticisms from López Obrador. Citizens' Movement, the only national party without a coalition, nominated Jorge Máynez. This was the first general election in Mexico's history in which the main contenders for the country's presidency were women.

Sheinbaum won the presidential election by a landslide margin of over 32 points, becoming the first woman and the first person of Jewish descent to be elected president of Mexico. The election saw Sheinbaum receiving the highest number of votes ever recorded for a candidate in Mexican history, surpassing López Obrador's record of 30.1 million votes from 2018.

Background

Electoral system

The president is elected by plurality voting in a single round; there is no provision for a second run-off round. Article 83 of the Mexican Constitution limits the president to a single six-year term, called a sexenio; no one who has served as president, even on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run for or serve in the office again. The new president will be sworn in on 1 October.

The 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected in two ways: 300 are elected in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, and the remaining 200 are elected by proportional representation in five multi-member districts, with seats divided according to Hamilton's method. No party is permitted to hold more than 300 seats.

The 128 members of the Senate are also elected in two ways: 96 in 32 three-seat constituencies corresponding to the nation's states, and the remaining 32 in a single national constituency using proportional representation. In the three-seat constituencies, two seats are assigned to the party with the highest number of votes, and one seat to the party with the second-highest number of votes.

The National Electoral Institute (INE) is the organization responsible for federal elections in Mexico. Its responsibilities include preparing for election day, printing documents and producing electoral materials, conducting the vote count, and declaring the validity of the elections.

Political parties

Seven national political parties are registered with the INE and are eligible to participate in federal elections: the National Action Party (PAN), the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD), the Labor Party (PT), the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM), Citizens' Movement (MC) and Morena.

Article 87 of the General Law of Political Parties stipulates that national political parties can form coalitions for elections by submitting a coalition agreement to the electoral authority.

Article 94 of the General Law of Political Parties stipulates that national political parties that do not reach 3% of the popular vote in either the presidential or legislative elections will lose their registration as a national political party. This loss of registration means they would no longer be allowed to participate in federal elections.

Redistricting

In December 2022, the INE redistributed the country's 300 electoral districts, making this the first election to occur with the new boundaries.

The redistricting process granted the states of Baja California, Coahuila, Puebla, Querétaro, and Yucatán an additional district, while Nuevo León received two additional districts. The states of Guerrero, Mexico, Michoacán, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz each lost one district, and Mexico City lost two.

List of registered voters

On 30 April 2024, the INE announced that there were 98,329,591 registered voters in Mexico, 187,388 registered voters abroad, 30,391 registered voters in preventive detention, and 4,002 registered for early voting.

Voting modalities

To participate in the elections, citizens must go to the polling stations with their voter ID to cast their votes. Additionally, there are several voting methods for citizens who cannot personally attend to vote.

Early voting

Citizens with physical limitations or disabilities that prevent them from going to the polling stations on election day were able to vote in advance. The process was conducted through a postal system, with electoral materials sent directly to the voter's home.

Citizens in preventive detention were also eligible to vote in advance, receiving an envelope containing ballots and instructions. This election marked the first instance of facilitating voter registration for individuals in preventive detention. The initiative aimed to ensure the political-electoral right to vote for those who are incarcerated but have not been convicted of a crime.

Overseas voting

Mexican citizens residing abroad who retain their political rights can participate in elections through various methods. These voters must be registered in the section of the Electoral Roll for Citizens Residing Abroad. They are eligible to cast their votes in person, electronically, or by mail for the presidency, senatorial positions, deputy positions, and local elections.

Presidential candidates

Sigamos Haciendo Historia

Sigamos Haciendo Historia ("Let's Keep Making History") is the left-wing coalition encompassing the National Regeneration Movement (Morena), the Labor Party (PT) and the Ecologist Green Party of Mexico (PVEM). It is the successor to Juntos Hacemos Historia.

On 11 June 2023, Juntos Hacemos Historia announced an internal selection process to select a de facto presidential nominee. The coalition required that prospective candidates resign from their positions in the government to stand for the nomination. Marcelo Ebrard, secretary of foreign affairs, was the first to register as a candidate, followed by Claudia Sheinbaum, Head of Government of Mexico City. Other candidates included Adán Augusto López, Gerardo Fernández Noroña, Ricardo Monreal, and Manuel Velasco.

The coalition's internal process consisted of five opinion polls, with four polls selected from a list comprising each candidate's two suggested polling companies. The polls were conducted from 28 August to 4 September. On 6 September 2023, Sheinbaum was declared the winner and was later confirmed as the prospective nominee.

Sigamos Haciendo Historia was officially registered as a coalition at the INE on 19 November 2023, designating Sheinbaum as the coalition's sole candidate. Sheinbaum formally registered her candidacy at the INE on 18 February 2024.

Candidate %
Claudia Sheinbaum 39.38
Marcelo Ebrard 25.80
Gerardo Fernández Noroña 12.2
Adán Augusto López 10.0
Manuel Velasco Coello 7.16
Ricardo Monreal 5.86

Nominee

Fuerza y Corazón por México

Fuerza y Corazón por México ("Strength and Heart for Mexico") is the opposition coalition, a big tent composed of the National Action Party (PAN), the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). It stemmed from the political grouping Frente Amplio por México ("Broad Front for Mexico"), composed of the same parties.

Frente Amplio por México conducted an internal selection process to determine their de facto presidential nominee. In the initial phase, candidates were required to secure 150,000 signatures, including a minimum of 1,000 signatures from 17 out of the nation's 32 states. Four candidates successfully advanced through this stage: Xóchitl Gálvez, Beatriz Paredes, Santiago Creel, and Enrique de la Madrid.

Polls were used in the internal selection process's subsequent phases. The first poll, held from 11 to 14 August, intended to identify the top three candidates. Following that, a second poll was scheduled for 27–30 August, accounting for 50% of the points required for nomination. The remaining 50% would be selected by an online poll on 3 September.

In the first poll, Enrique de la Madrid was eliminated. Santiago Creel resigned on 21 August, just before the second poll, and endorsed Xóchitl Gálvez. During the second poll, Gálvez defeated Beatriz Paredes by 15 points. On 31 August, the PRI endorsed Gálvez, effectively removing their candidate, Paredes, from the campaign. Later that day, the third poll was cancelled, and Gálvez was confirmed as the likely presidential nominee.

On 20 November 2023, the Frente Amplio por México registered as a coalition under the name Fuerza y Corazón por México, designating Gálvez as their sole candidate. She formally registered her candidacy at the INE on 20 February 2024.

Candidate First poll Second poll
% %
Xóchitl Gálvez 38.3 57.58
Beatriz Paredes 26.0 42.42
Santiago Creel 20.1 Withdrawn
Enrique de la Madrid 15.6 Eliminated

Nominee

Citizens' Movement

On 29 August 2023, Dante Delgado, the party leader of Citizens' Movement, ruled out joining Fuerza y Corazón por México, instead saying that the party would nominate its own candidate to contend in the presidential election.

The party's presidential candidate registration period was open from 3 to 12 November. The first person to register was Senator Indira Kempis Martínez, who had previously declared her intention to run for president. Benjamín Antonio Russek de Garay, Francisco Javier Rodriguez Espejel, Javier Gerardo Limones Cerniceros, Lorena Romo Vite, Ana María Moreno Hernández, Ernesto Miguel Sánchez Ruiz and Samuel García were among the participants in the race. On 12 November, Marcelo Ebrard, who had failed to be selected as the candidate for Sigamos Haciendo Historia, announced he was not seeking the party's nomination, despite being courted by the party.

On 17 November, the party disqualified seven out of eight candidates, leaving only Samuel García, the governor of Nuevo León. However, on 2 December, García suspended his campaign due to a political crisis in his state over the appointment of an interim governor to replace him. On 9 January 2024, federal deputy Jorge Máynez was nominated as a substitute for Samuel García, with García announcing on social media that Máynez would be the party's next presidential candidate. The next day, Máynez was officially designated as the party's sole candidate. Máynez formally registered his candidacy at the INE on 22 February 2024.

Nominee

Independents

The registration deadline for individuals wishing to run for president as independent candidates (i.e. without the backing of a registered party) expired on 7 September 2023.

To formalize their candidacies, independent presidential hopefuls have to collect the signatures of voters endorsing them in an amount equal to 1% of the country's entire electoral roll – a total of over 966,000 – distributed equally across at least 17 of the nation's states, within a period of 120 days.

A total of 27 individuals informed the INE of their wish to run for the presidency as independent candidates before the deadline. By 7 September, six of them had been given permission to begin collecting signatures; the remaining 21 were given 48 hours to correct shortcomings in the documentation they had presented. The six green-lighted prospective independent candidates were Rocío Gabriela González Castañeda, Ulises Ernesto Ruiz Ortiz, César Enrique Asiain del Castillo, Hugo Eric Flores Cervantes, María Ofelia Edgar Mares and José Eduardo Verástegui Córdoba. A further three – Fernando Mauricio Jiménez Chávez, Manuel Antonio Romo Aguirre, and Ignacio Benavente Torres – were announced on 27 September.

At the conclusion of the 120-day deadline, the INE announced that none of the prospective independent candidates had been successful in collecting the required number of signatures.

Legislative elections

Senate

The 128 members of the Senate are elected by two methods: 96 are elected in 32 three-seat constituencies based on the country's states and the remaining 32 in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation. In the three-seat constituencies, two seats are allocated to the party receiving the highest number of votes (mayoría relativa) and one seat to the party receiving the second-highest number of votes (primera minoría).

Chamber of Deputies

Elections to the Chamber of Deputies of Mexico were held on 2 June 2024 as part of the general election, with all 500 seats up for election. When announced, the winners will be elected for three-year terms to serve in the 66th Congress (1 September 2024 to 31 August 2027). Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected in two ways: 300 in single-member constituencies by plurality vote, and the remaining 200 by proportional representation in five multi-member districts, with seats divided according to Hamilton's method. No party is permitted to hold more than 300 seats.

Campaigns

The INE established that the campaigning period for president, senators, and federal deputies would officially begin on 1 March and conclude on 29 May, three days before the elections. Election silence was observed from 30 May until the polls closed on 2 June.

Issues

Security

Polling indicated that crime and violence ranked high on voters' concerns in the election. During outgoing president Andrés Manuel López Obrador's term, Mexico experienced one of its bloodiest periods. From 2018 to 2022, the number of intentional homicides surpassed 30,000, with the peak in 2020 at 36,773 homicides. However, since 2020, homicide rates have decreased. In 2023, homicides fell below 30,000 for the first time since 2018, totaling 29,675. Despite this decrease, the numbers remain higher than any recorded between 1990 and 2017.

López Obrador tackled this issue by endorsing the "hugs, not bullets" slogan and establishing the civilian-led National Guard. Some have raised the suspicions that López Obrador's administration is underreporting intentional homicides, with some cases possibly being reclassified as having undetermined intentions in order to bring the figure down.

Xóchitl Gálvez highlighted that security would be a top priority in her government. She expressed her opposition to López Obrador's "hugs, not bullets" approach and proposed a number of measures to strengthen state police forces across the country, including raising their salaries to MXN $20,000 per month, building a university for aspiring police officers, and providing state governments with increased economic resources and advanced technology to combat crime. Gálvez also suggested doubling the numbers of prosecutors and judges and the size of the National Guard; redirecting the Secretariat of National Defense's (SEDENA) focus from public works back to national security; vowing to work closely with the United States in order to confront the drug cartels; and to construct a new maximum security prison.

Claudia Sheinbaum has expressed her commitment to replicating her success as Head of Government of Mexico City, where, in 2023, her policies brought down intentional homicides to their lowest level since 1989. She explained that she would follow a similar structure, emphasizing zero impunity by strengthening coordination among the National Guard, state police forces, and prosecutors, as well as improving intelligence and investigative services. She also announced plans to strengthen the National Guard's capabilities, allowing them to increase their duties in highway monitoring and as first responders. She also stressed the role of the judicial branch in bringing criminals to justice, advocating that judges be chosen by popular vote and establishing a disciplinary court to punish corrupt judges.

Social programs

President López Obrador implemented various social programs, with the largest being the Pension for the Well-being of Older People (Pensión para el Bienestar de las Personas Adultas Mayores), targeting individuals aged 65 and above. These programs are very popular among voters.

Both Xóchitl Gálvez and Claudia Sheinbaum expressed their support for the social programs established by the outgoing administration and pledged not to abolish them. Gálvez proposed reducing the age eligibility for the Pension for the Well-being of Older People from 65 to 60. Sheinbaum pledged to ensure that any increases to the pensions from all social programs will always be above the inflation rate.

Sheinbaum has proposed two new social programs: one aimed at students from preschool to secondary education, and the other targeting women aged 60 to 64, where they would receive half the amount provided by the Pension for the Well-being of Older People.

Energy

López Obrador has pursued an energy sovereignty policy, seeking to prevent Pemex from exporting crude oil and instead refining it in Mexico. To this end, he inaugurated a new refinery in Paraíso, Tabasco, cancelled oil auctions, financed Pemex's debts, and used regulatory agencies to keep private firms off the market.

Claudia Sheinbaum is committed to following López Obrador's approach, believing that the country's energy policy should have a low rate of energy imports. She has claimed to have a commitment to diversifying Mexico's energy matrix, particularly with renewable energies.

Xóchitl Gálvez advocated for a more free-market model approach to Mexico's energy sector, proposing significant reforms to Pemex by opening it up to private investment and reinstating oil auctions and joint ventures, using Petrobras as an example. She stated that she would use the oil drilled by private companies for the petrochemical industry and would produce electricity with renewable energies. Additionally, Gálvez emphasized the role of natural gas as a transitional fuel and intended to increase investments in hydrogen and solar power.

Electoral reform

During his term, president López Obrador unsuccessfully attempted to pass electoral reforms multiple times. His latest proposal, unveiled on 5 February 2024 as one of twenty proposed constitutional reforms, aims to restructure the INE by reducing the number of counselers and requiring that electoral judges be elected by popular vote. Additionally, it would eliminate all seats allocated by proportional representation, reducing the Chamber of Deputies from 500 to 300 seats and the Senate from 128 to 64 seats.

Members of Fuerza y Corazón por México have been critical of López Obrador's efforts to reform the electoral system and have successfully blocked previous attempts in the legislature, deeming them undemocratic. On 18 February 2024, the coalition organized nationwide protests, dubbed the "march for democracy", in multiple cities, with the largest one occurring at the Zócalo in Mexico City. Government figures estimate turnout at 90,000; however, organizers claim that about 700,000 attendees were at the protests. Gálvez lauded the protests, asserting that Mexico's institutions would remain free from interference by authoritative figures.

Sheinbaum suggested passing López Obrador's electoral reform if the outgoing administration failed to do so, supporting reducing the INE's costs, the elimination of seats allocated by proportional representation, and advocating for counselers and electoral judges to be elected via popular vote. Additionally, she proposed a constitutional amendment to prevent reelection for any popularly elected position. Furthermore, she announced her willingness to subject herself to a recall election, mirroring López Obrador in 2022.

Debates

Prior to the campaigning period, the INE set the date and venue for the three presidential debates. According to electoral law, presidential candidates are required to take part in a minimum of two debates. Moderators were selected 30 days before the debate date. All debates took place in Mexico City and were broadcast on the INE's official YouTube channel, INETV.

Debates for the 2024 Mexican presidential election
Date Time Venue Moderator(s) Participants Viewership
(millions)
7 April 2024 8:00 p.m. CST Instituto Nacional Electoral Denise Maerker
Manuel López San Martín
Claudia Sheinbaum
Xóchitl Gálvez
Jorge Máynez
13.7
28 April 2024 8:00 p.m. CST Estudios Churubusco Adriana Pérez Cañedo
Alejandro Cacho
16.18
19 May 2024 8:00 p.m. CST Centro Cultural Universitario Tlatelolco [es] (UNAM) Luisa Cantú Ríos
Elena Solís
Javier Solórzano Zinser [es]
13.9

First debate

The first debate was held on 7 April 2024 at the INE's headquarters. The theme of the debate was "the society we want", with questions focused on health and education, corruption and governmental transparency, discrimination against vulnerable groups, and violence against women. On 6 March, the INE selected journalists Denise Maerker and Manuel López San Martín as moderators of the debate. The debate was the first in 18 years without López Obrador, who participated in the presidential debates during the 2006, 2012, and 2018 elections.

The debate was characterized as light on proposals, with frequent personal attacks being prevalent. Gálvez was described as attempting to attack Sheinbaum whenever she had the opportunity to do so in order to provoke her opponent, interlacing attacks with incidents where Sheinbaum was involved, such as the collapse of the Colegio Rébsamen during the 2017 Mexico City earthquake, the Mexico City Metro overpass collapse, and the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico City. Gálvez called Sheinbaum the cold and heartless "ice lady" and at one point stated, "You're no AMLO. You don't even have his charisma". Máynez accused Sheinbaum and Gálvez of belonging to the "old politics", and highlighted that Gálvez was endorsed by the "worst PRI in history". Sheinbaum also briefly mentioned the 2024 raid on the Mexican embassy in Ecuador and praised diplomatic staff there for their courage during the incident.

Many stated that there was no clear winner and that the debate would not influence polling. However, some highlighted Sheinbaum's calm and disciplined demeanor throughout the debate, even amid provocations from Gálvez. Máynez was described as struggling to find footing, since he was overshadowed by the two better-known candidates. López Obrador stated that "the whole narrative of the debate was to not recognize anything" done under his administration, while sources from his government said that the president was dissatisfied with Sheinbaum for not adequately defending his policies.

Second debate

The second debate was held on 28 April 2024 at Estudios Churubusco. The theme was "the route to the development of Mexico", addressing topics including economic growth, employment, inflation, infrastructure, poverty, climate change, and sustainable development. To ensure state inclusivity, the INE gathered questions from citizens of all 32 federal entities. On 28 March, the INE selected journalists Adriana Pérez Cañedo and Alejandro Cacho as moderators of the debate. The debate was the most watched in Mexican history, with 16.18 million viewers.

Similar to the first debate, Gálvez was again described as the aggressor, even holding placards several times while Sheinbaum spoke, prompting moderator Pérez Cañedo to reprimand her. Gálvez questioned Sheinbaum about investigating potential corruption within López Obrador's administration, including allegations involving one of the president's sons and the illicit enrichment of Rocío Nahle García, to which Sheinbaum challenged her to file a complaint. Throughout the debate, Sheinbaum avoided addressing Gálvez by name, referring to her instead as the "candidate of the PRIAN" and the "corrupt one"; in retaliation, Gálvez called her the "candidate of lies" and the "narco-candidate". Máynez was mostly ignored by the other candidates, which allowed him to flesh out proposals, with periodic attacks on Gálvez. Some praise was also drawn to López Obrador's social programs, with Sheinbaum and Gálvez agreeing to maintain them.

Many stated that the debate would not influence polling as there was no clear consensus on a winner. It was described that on social media, opinions on the winner were very closely linked to the opinions on the candidates prior to the debate. In Google Trends, Máynez led in average interest during the debate, although there were moments when Sheinbaum had higher peaks than Máynez.

Third debate

The third and final debate was held on 19 May 2024, held at UNAM's Centro Cultural Universitario Tlatelolco. The theme was "democracy and government: constructive dialogues", with questions focused on social policy; insecurity and organized crime; migration and foreign policy; and democracy, pluralism, and division of powers. On 18 April 2024, the INE selected journalists Luisa Cantú Ríos, Elena Arcila, and Javier Solórzano Zinser as moderators of the debate, each respectively representing the northern, southern, and central regions of Mexico. The debate's format would have initially allowed candidates to directly engage with each other, but on 9 May, the campaigns agreed to a new format where candidates would submit questions to the moderators, who would then choose and ask them.

The debate saw Claudia Sheinbaum defend López Obrador's security policy and pledging to continue tackling the Mexican drug war from a social angle, while Xóchitl Gálvez said that "Hugs for criminals are over" in reference to López Obrador's slogan "Hugs, not bullets" and pledged to strengthen the National Guard created by López Obrador as well as state and local police forces. Jorge Álvarez Máynez focused on youth empowerment during the debate and pledged to implement a five-day workweek and create more spaces in public universities.

Many commentators criticized the debate's format and the removal of the face-to-face portion, arguing that it hindered meaningful dialogue. Opinions on the winner varied, with some finding it unclear and others declaring Sheinbaum the victor, claiming that Sheinbaum won because Gálvez had lost, as she spent too much time attacking Sheinbaum instead of presenting her own proposals. Most polls indicated that Sheinbaum was perceived as the winner.

Incidents

Political assassinations

Since January 2024, multiple aspiring candidates for political office have been killed, according to the watchdog group Civic Data. This led to the government providing security guards to around 560 candidates and election officials. Around 27,000 personnel of the Armed Forces and National Guard were deployed to secure the electoral process. On 10 February, a congressional candidate of MORENA in Ecatepec was shot dead in a street along with his brother after having allegedly received threats from a local union. By May 2024, the death toll had risen to 37.

Gaffes

In April 2024, Xóchitl Gálvez stated that people who did not own a house by the age of 60 were poor money managers, before later clarifying that the words were meant solely at Claudia Sheinbaum, who lives in a rented apartment and had attacked Gálvez for the circumstances in which she acquired her home. Jorge Máynez also sparked outrage and apologized after posting a video in which he appeared to be drinking while criticizing electoral officials.

On 10 May 2024, Claudia Sheinbaum said during a campaign speech in Baja California Sur that "we are not going to reach the presidency like Andrés Manuel López Obrador did, out of personal ambition". Sheinbaum subsequently said that the phrase "could be misinterpreted" after being advised by the colleague, saying that she meant to say that López Obrador "transformed our country without personal ambitions". Xóchitl Gálvez said that the incident showed a Freudian slip on Sheinbaum's part.

Disasters

On 22 May, a stage being used by Jorge Álvarez Máynez for a campaign rally was toppled by strong winds in San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León, killing nine people including a child, and injuring 121 others. Máynez, who managed to escape, suspended his upcoming campaign events and met with hospitalized victims. Condolences were issued by his rivals and President López Obrador over the incident, while Claudia Sheinbaum cancelled an event in neighboring Monterrey scheduled the next day in solidarity with the victims of the disaster.

Opinion polls

Graphical summary

 
Local regression of polling conducted up to the 2024 Mexican presidential election (excludes others and undecided)

Polling aggregations

Source of poll
aggregation
Dates
administered
Dates
updated
      Lead
Sheinbaum
SHH
Gálvez
FCM
Máynez
MC
Oraculus through May 2024 29 May 2024 53% 36% 11% 17%
CEDE through 28 May 2024 29 May 2024 56% 33.3% 10.7% 22.7%
Polls.mx through 29 May 2024 29 May 2024 55% 31% 13% 24%
Bloomberg through 28 May 2024 29 May 2024 55.3% 34% 10.7% 21.3%
Expansión Política through 28 May 2024 29 May 2024 53.16% 33.76% 10.36% 19.4%
Average 54.5% 33.6% 11.2% 20.9%

Conduct

 
Ballot boxes in Mexico City.

Early voting for voters with disabilities or limited physical mobility, as well as for those in preventive detention, took place from 6 to 20 May.

There were 170,182 polling stations approved to be installed nationwide. On 2 June, polling stations opened at 8:00 CST and closed at 18:00 CST.

Polling stations

On 2 June at 20:00 CST, it was announced that of the 170,182 polling stations that were approved, 23 were not installed.

 
Voter in a wheelchair uses an adapted voting booth.

Election day violence

On 1 June, authorities ordered the suspension of voting in the municipalities of Pantelhó and Chicomuselo in Chiapas, citing the burning of election papers in the former by unknown individuals on 31 May and threats against poll workers by gang members. On election day, two people were killed in shootings at polling stations at Coyomeapan and Tlanalapan in Puebla.

Results

 
A person receives electoral ink on her thumb after casting her vote.

About 60 million votes were cast in each election, with most of them being cast on election day. The election saw a lower turnout than the 2012 and 2018 presidential elections, at 61.05%. Claudia Sheinbaum received 35.9 million votes, surpassing López Obrador's 2018 record of 30.1 million votes and making her the candidate who has received the most votes in Mexican history. She also achieved the highest vote percentage since 1982.

Sheinbaum carried 31 out of 32 states, with Aguascalientes being the only state where a plurality voted for Xóchitl Gálvez. Sheinbaum managed to flip Guanajuato –the home state of former president Vicente Fox– and a state considered a bastion for the National Action Party since 2000; it was the only state that did not vote for López Obrador in 2018.

Gálvez placed second in all states except Campeche, where Jorge Máynez defeated her by five percentage points. She also obtained 1.2 million fewer votes than the combined total of both Ricardo Anaya and José Antonio Meade, the PAN and PRI nominees for president in 2018 respectively; Gálvez obtained 16.5 million in total, while Anaya and Meade obtained 17.7 million votes combined.

President

CandidateParty or allianceVotes%
Claudia SheinbaumSigamos Haciendo HistoriaNational Regeneration Movement27,364,64946.61
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico4,677,0577.97
Labor Party3,882,8136.61
Total35,924,51961.18
Xóchitl GálvezFuerza y Corazón por MéxicoNational Action Party9,644,91816.43
Institutional Revolutionary Party5,736,7599.77
Party of the Democratic Revolution1,121,0201.91
Total16,502,69728.11
Jorge MáynezCitizens' Movement6,204,71010.57
Non-registered candidates83,1140.14
Total58,715,040100.00
Valid votes58,715,04097.67
Invalid/blank votes1,400,1442.33
Total votes60,115,184100.00
Registered voters/turnout98,468,99461.05
Source: INE

By state

State Sheinbaum
SHH
Gálvez
FCM
Máynez
MC
Write-ins Invalid/blank votes Total Votes
Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes % Votes %
Aguascalientes 284,706 42.73 306,262 45.97 59,498 8.93 1,571 0.24 14,205 2.13 666,242
Baja California 1,039,973 66.65 330,657 21.19 155,262 9.95 2,929 0.19 31,512 2.02 1,560,333
Baja California Sur 201,126 59.14 101,136 29.74 29,825 8.77 463 0.14 7,539 2.22 340,089
Campeche 275,315 61.30 69,546 15.48 94,280 20.99 432 0.10 9,570 2.13 449,143
Coahuila 853,437 53.72 617,208 38.85 85,857 5.40 1,203 0.08 31,004 1.95 1,588,709
Colima 188,093 54.41 103,580 29.96 46,092 13.33 698 0.20 7,247 2.10 345,710
Chiapas 1,769,444 71.55 412,846 16.69 183,101 7.40 2,269 0.09 105,298 4.26 2,472,958
Chihuahua 885,869 53.86 559,690 34.03 157,077 9.55 2,280 0.14 39,737 2.42 1,644,653
Mexico City 3,095,413 55.20 1,937,152 34.55 467,960 8.35 9,723 0.17 97,303 1.74 5,607,551
Durango 455,237 58.45 250,283 32.13 56,129 7.21 698 0.09 16,563 2.13 778,910
Guanajuato 1,302,706 47.22 1,103,326 39.99 291,379 10.56 4,613 0.17 57,068 2.07 2,759,092
Guerrero 1,110,844 71.66 291,130 18.78 98,827 6.38 1,430 0.09 47,869 3.09 1,550,100
Hidalgo 1,043,873 67.44 307,056 19.84 159,899 10.33 1,586 0.10 35,547 2.30 1,547,961
Jalisco 1,720,921 44.44 1,384,825 35.76 670,462 17.31 8,648 0.22 87,479 2.26 3,872,339
México 5,125,040 60.60 2,241,267 26.50 905,529 10.71 10,882 0.13 174,459 2.06 8,457,177
Michoacán 1,140,630 55.07 607,301 29.32 250,391 12.09 3,808 0.18 69,044 3.33 2,071,174
Morelos 631,526 63.80 211,169 21.34 126,294 12.76 1,075 0.11 19,713 1.99 989,777
Nayarit 342,762 63.27 109,487 20.21 74,621 13.77 711 0.13 14,134 2.61 541,715
Nuevo León 1,159,159 45.21 888,064 34.64 463,002 18.06 3,398 0.13 50,253 1.96 2,563,876
Oaxaca 1,441,211 76.37 271,981 14.41 124,621 6.60 1,633 0.09 47,631 2.52 1,887,077
Puebla 2,146,741 65.19 716,148 21.74 332,071 10.08 4,102 0.12 93,890 2.85 3,292,952
Querétaro 622,335 51.08 449,501 36.89 116,117 9.53 2,957 0.24 27,548 2.26 1,218,458
Quintana Roo 605,361 73.17 138,992 16.80 63,890 7.72 1,339 0.16 17,703 2.14 827,285
San Luis Potosí 826,746 60.51 347,948 25.47 146,802 10.75 2,020 0.15 42,682 3.12 1,366,198
Sinaloa 872,249 65.59 326,368 24.54 103,193 7.76 1,128 0.08 26,868 2.02 1,329,806
Sonora 750,219 63.92 290,917 24.79 107,759 9.18 1,423 0.12 23,401 1.99 1,173,719
Tabasco 897,143 80.53 124,037 11.13 66,018 5.93 1,107 0.10 25,696 2.31 1,114,001
Tamaulipas 1,013,715 62.33 427,228 26.27 152,528 9.38 1,865 0.11 30,965 1.90 1,626,301
Tlaxcala 512,774 69.20 109,112 14.73 103,236 13.93 800 0.11 15,038 2.03 740,960
Veracruz 2,441,410 66.45 846,842 23.05 294,613 8.02 3,769 0.10 87,363 2.38 3,673,997
Yucatán 779,851 60.69 390,645 30.40 88,001 6.85 1,177 0.09 25,301 1.97 1,284,975
Zacatecas 388,690 50.35 230,993 29.92 130,376 16.89 1,373 0.18 20,514 2.66 771,946
Total 35,924,519 59.76 16,502,697 27.45 6,204,710 10.32 83,114 0.14 1,400,144 2.33 60,115,184

Legislature

Chamber of Deputies

 
Party or allianceConstituencyParty-listTotal
seats
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
Sigamos Haciendo HistoriaNational Regeneration Movement3,686,9796.483724,286,31742.4087248
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico676,0921.1904,993,9888.721875
Labor Party507,6040.8903,254,7185.681250
Common candidates27,446,01448.26219
Total32,316,68956.8225633,421,61058.35117373
Fuerza y Corazón por MéxicoNational Action Party372,6700.66310,049,37517.553668
Institutional Revolutionary Party101,5740.1806,623,79611.572433
Party of the Democratic Revolution20,3740.0401,449,6602.5301
Common candidates17,493,42530.7639
Total17,988,04331.634218,000,85431.4360102
Citizens' Movement6,446,53711.3416,497,40411.342324
Independents72,0120.13172,0120.1301
Non-registered candidates48,8710.09047,0920.0800
Total56,872,152100.0030057,274,362100.00200500
Valid votes56,872,15296.3457,274,36296.03
Invalid/blank votes2,162,1713.662,369,9323.97
Total votes59,034,323100.0059,644,294100.00
Source: INE

Senate

 
Party or allianceConstituencyParty-listTotal
seats
Votes%SeatsVotes%Seats
Sigamos Haciendo HistoriaNational Regeneration Movement7,526,45313.192124,484,94342.481460
Ecologist Green Party of Mexico2,298,7264.0345,357,9599.30314
Labor Party1,215,1722.1303,214,7085.5829
Common candidates21,731,73738.0839
Total32,772,08857.436433,421,61057.991983
Fuerza y Corazón por MéxicoNational Action Party1,148,9202.01110,107,53717.54622
Institutional Revolutionary Party316,6360.5506,530,30511.33416
Party of the Democratic Revolution76,0820.1301,363,0122.3602
Common candidates16,244,37328.4729
Total17,786,01131.173018,000,85431.231040
Citizens' Movement6,460,22011.3226,528,23811.3335
Non-registered candidates46,2300.08047,0920.0800
Total57,064,549100.009657,633,794100.0032128
Valid votes57,064,54996.0857,633,79496.05
Invalid/blank votes2,326,7423.922,369,9323.95
Total votes59,391,291100.0060,003,726100.00
Source: INE

Aftermath

Election night

 
Claudia Sheinbaum during her victory speech at the Zócalo.

At 11:50 PM CST on 2 June, the INE's president, Guadalupe Taddei, declared that according to the INE's Quick Count, the winner of the presidential contest was Claudia Sheinbaum. The Quick Count also projected that Sigamos Haciendo Historia would keep its control of the Congress of the Union, with a supermajority in the Chamber of Deputies and a probable supermajority in the Senate.

Shortly after the INE's announcement, Xóchitl Gálvez and Jorge Máynez called Sheinbaum to congratulate her on her victory. During their respective press conferences, both Gálvez and Máynez publicly conceded, with Máynez highlighting that the results represented the best performance for Citizens' Movement. However, Gálvez later described the electoral campaign as an "unequal competition against the entire state apparatus dedicated to favouring its candidate", adding that she would challenge the result.

Reacting to the result on X, Sheinbaum said that she would not let the electorate down. She later addressed her supporters at the Zócalo in Mexico City, who had gathered at the plaza to celebrate her victory. President Andrés Manuel López Obrador described Sheinbaum's victory as historic and reiterated his pledge not to interfere in her incoming administration.

Final vote counts

Final vote counting started on 5 June at 8:00 CST. The INE announced it would recount ballots from 60% of the polling stations, a decrease from the 75% that were recounted during the 2018 elections. Xóchitl Gálvez requested for 80% of the ballots to be recounted, asserting there were irregularities at some polling stations.

On 6 June, final vote counts concluded for the presidential election, increasing Sheinbaum's margin of victory by 0.85%.

On 9 June, constiuency seats and final vote count results were released by the INE. Projections using the final vote counts to calculate party-list deputies and senators confirmed a supermajority in the Chamber of Deputies but not in the Senate, falling two seats short of the two-thirds majority needed to change the Constitution.

Party registrations

On 10 June, the INE notified the Party of the Democratic Revolution that it did not reach the required 3% of the popular vote in the presidential or legislative elections to keep its registration as a national political party. As a result, the party entered a prevention period, potentially leading to the loss of its registration.

Reactions

Financial markets

Amid concerns that a supermajority in both chambers of Congress would lead to anti-market reforms, the peso dropped nearly 3% against the U.S. dollar following initial reporting; by the end of the week, it was down 10% from its pre-election level. From less than 17 to the U.S. dollar on 2 June, the peso fell over the nine days following the election to trade at 18.50 on 11 June, still considerably stronger than the all-time low of over 25 seen at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. On 3 June, the two largest ETFs focused on Mexico (iShares MSCI Mexico ETF EWW and Franklin FTSE Mexico ETF FLMX) dropped more than 10%, the biggest daily decline in four years. The Mexican Stock Exchange ended the 3 June trading day down 6.1%, while the MSCI Mexico Index dropped 8.8%.

International

  •   Argentina: The Ministry of Foreign Affairs congratulated Sheinbaum, stating that it "renews its willingness to continue developing the bilateral work agenda".
  •   Belgium: Prime Minister Alexander De Croo congratulated Sheinbaum, describing her victory as "important milestone."
  •   Belize: Prime Minister John Briceño congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory.
  •   Bolivia: President Luis Arce congratulated Sheinbaum, describing her victory as "resounding."
  •   Brazil: President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva congratulated Sheinbaum, calling it "a victory for democracy, and also for my great colleague AMLO, who made an extraordinary government".
  •   Canada: Prime Minister Justin Trudeau welcomed Sheinbaum's election in a tweet, citing an intent to maintain and strengthen Canada-Mexico relations.
  •   Chile: President Gabriel Boric congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory, saying that "her leadership and her program of social progress inspire the region and continue to unite us as sister countries."
  •   China: President Xi Jinping congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory, saying he is willing to strengthen strategic communication with the president-elect to lead bilateral relations to a new level and bring more benefits to the two peoples.
  •   Colombia: President Gustavo Petro and Vice President Francia Márquez sent their congratulations to Sheinbaum with Petro stating that her election was "a victory for the Mexican people and their democracy."
  •   Costa Rica: President Rodrigo Chaves congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory and sent her best wishes in her future management.
  •   Cuba: President Miguel Díaz-Canel congratulated Sheinbaum and offered his support "to continue strengthening the close brotherhood that unites our peoples."
  •   Ecuador: The Foreign Ministry congratulated the people of Mexico for holding democratic elections.
  •   El Salvador: President Nayib Bukele congratulated Sheinbaum and pledged to "continue working for the inclusive development of our region" through a call.
  •   European Union: President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen, congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory, calling her election "historic" as the first woman to preside over Mexico in its democratic history.
  •   France: President Emmanuel Macron congratulated Sheinbaum and agreed to "work closely on major global challenges," especially climate change and biodiversity loss, and also "continue acting in favor of women's rights".
  •   Germany: Chancellor Olaf Scholz congratulated Sheinbaum and expressed his desire to deepen cooperation between Germany and Mexico.
  •   Guatemala: President Bernardo Arévalo personally telephoned Sheinbaum to congratulate her on her victory and discuss future collaborations between the two with him stating that Sheinbaum has an "ally that is ready to work together" with her.
  •   Honduras: President Xiomara Castro sent her congratulations to Sheinbaum in an X post.
  •   Japan: Prime Minister Fumio Kishida congratulated Sheinbaum and expressed his desire to work with Mexico as a Strategic Global Partner to further develop the traditional and strong bilateral relations.
  •   Nicaragua: President Daniel Ortega and Vice President Rosario Murillo congratulated Sheinbaum on her "historic victory."
  •   Panama: President Laurentino Cortizo congratulated Sheinbaum.
  •   Paraguay: President Santiago Peña congratulated Sheinbaum and said he hopes they continue working for the well-being of their people.
  •   Peru: President Dina Boluarte congratulated Sheinbaum in a statement issued by the country's foreign ministry.
  •   Russia: President Vladimir Putin congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory and highlighted friendly ties between Russia and Mexico, which he described as "traditional".
  •   Saudi Arabia: Prime Minister Mohammed bin Salman congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory.
  •   Spain: Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory as Mexico's first female president.
  •   Ukraine: President Volodymyr Zelenskyy congratulated Sheinbaum on her victory, saying that he wished her "much success during her term".
  •   United Arab Emirates: President Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan congratulated Sheinbaum for winning the election through a phone call.
  •   United Nations: Secretary-General António Guterres congratulated Sheinbaum and highlighted the gender perspective.
  •   United States: President Joe Biden congratulated Sheinbaum, calling it a "historic win" and praising the Mexican people for operating a successful election at all levels.
  •   Uruguay: President Luis Lacalle Pou congratulated Sheinbaum and wished for closer ties between both countries.
  •   Venezuela: President Nicolás Maduro congratulated Sheinbaum, calling it a "victory for the great homeland".

Notes

References